To be able to obtain optimal informed consent for cardiac catheterization, there are at least 4 aspects of the process that must be carefully considered.
- The patient must have the capacity and ability to make the decision.
- The clinician obtaining consent, must provide adequate information about the procedure and must describe the expected risks and benefits including the probability that the risks or benefits will actually occur.
- The patient must understand the relevant information regarding the procedure, risks, and benefits, and
- The patient must voluntarily give consent without duress or being coerced.
In this lecture, Dr. Ragosta provides the background information needed for cardiology attendings, fellows, and/or nurse practitioners to participate in the informed consent process.